Ukrainian-Russian war: who won?
Ukrainian forces have made rapid gains in recent days and recaptured territory in the Russian-occupied Luhansk region in eastern Ukraine.
However, Russian troops still control about a fifth of the country’s territory.
Russia invaded Ukraine on February 24, surrounding the Ukrainian capital, Kyiv. It also launched attacks in the south, east and north of the country.
In early April, Ukrainian troops recaptured large areas around Kyiv, after Russia halted its push into the capital.
Since then, Russia has concentrated its military operations in southern, eastern and northeastern Ukraine, seizing large areas.
However, things took a drastic turn in early September.
In a decisive offensive in the northeast, Ukraine pushed back Russian forces. It claims to have regained 3,000 square kilometers (1,158 square miles) of territory around the city of Kharkiv alone.
His troops also reclaimed land at Luhansk in eastern Ukraine. Since July, the area has been completely occupied by Russia.
In total, Ukraine claims to have regained more than 8,000 km (3,088 sq mi) from Russian control in September – its biggest territorial gain since the start of the war.
The cities of Izyum and Kupyansk, which Ukraine said it recaptured on September 10, are both key supply hubs for Russian troops. As such, it represents an important strategic advantage.
There was also a Ukrainian counterattack around the Kherson region in the south of the country where the Institute for the Study of War (ISW) said Ukrainian forces had inflicted a “major operational defeat” on Russian forces.
Justin Bronk of the Royal United Services Institute said Russia’s position in Kharkiv had suffered a “complete collapse”.
The Russian withdrawal, he said, was “certainly the most dramatic setback we have seen from the Russians since they withdrew from Kyiv in April”.
Russia has confirmed that its troops have withdrawn from Izyum and Kupiansk. He said it was a strategic withdrawal to “regroup”.
It also said it would continue to target these areas with military strikes.
The Russian army appears to have abandoned large quantities of equipment and ammunition during the withdrawal.
How much territory is still occupied by Russia?
Russia still owns about 20% of Ukraine, according to ISW.
The territory is mostly in the eastern Donbass region and southern mainland Ukraine, as well as the Crimean Peninsula which Russia annexed in 2014.
Donbas is a predominantly Russian-speaking region, and after Russia seized Crimea in 2014, pro-Russian forces occupied more than a third of the territory.
He created two so-called people’s republics there.
Areas in the west of the country, including Lviv, came under missile attack, but there was no attempt by Russian troops to seize and occupy the land.
What do Russia want?
Russia refuses to recognize its invasion as war and says it is carrying out a “special military operation” in Ukraine.
The Kremlin said its operation would continue “until all the tasks set initially” had been completed.
Launching the invasion in February, President Vladimir Putin said his aim was to “demilitarize Ukraine”.
One of its goals is to ensure that Ukraine will not join the Western defense alliance, NATO.
Russia’s original goal was to invade Ukraine and overthrow its government.
However, it now appears that his ambitions are limited to securing land in eastern and southern Ukraine.
What do Ukraine want?
Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky said his ultimate goal was to expel all Russian troops, to “uproot all of our territory”.
Mr Zelensky asked for more funds and equipment to defend the territory recaptured from Russia.
Western arms supplies are widely used by Ukrainian forces.
How many people died?
Both sides suffered losses, though neither released exact figures.
Ukraine claims to have killed more than 50,000 Russian troops and in late August said it had lost nearly 9,000 troops since the start of the conflict.
Russia rarely discloses the deaths of its own soldiers. His last death tally was in March, when he said 1,351 Russian soldiers had died since the invasion began.
In July, US officials estimated that around 15,000 Russian troops had died.
Civilians also died. In early September, the United Nations confirmed more than 5,700 deaths.
However, the United Nations says the real number is likely much higher.